D. Melegos - SBI4U1
Welcome to the Grade 12 Biology (University Preparation) website. This course provides students with the opportunity for in-depth study of the concepts and processes that occur in biological systems. Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biochemistry, metabolic processes, molecular genetics, homeostasis, and population dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on the achievement of detailed knowledge and the refinement of skills needed for further study in various branches of the life sciences and related fields.
Prerequisite: Biology, Grade 11, University Preparation
For the course outline please click here .
Cellular Respiration [Handouts of instructional material regarding the stages of the cellular respiration process]
VO2 Max Activity [Marking scheme for the VO2 Max activity; download and staple with your product submission]
Photosynthesis [Handouts of instructional material regarding the processes of photosynthesis]
Nephron Reabsorption [Animation of the reabsorption process in the kidneys]
ADH Action [Animation of the ADH's role in maintaining water balance]
Melegos et.al. [Mr. Melegos' Manuscript regarding PDGS and Renal Failure.....discovered by accident]
- Basic organelle structure and function.
- Molecular polarity and electronegativity (recognize polar molecules, and understand the concept).
- Molecular shapes.
- Application of radioisotopes (eg in radiometric dating, nuclear medicine, biological research).
- Isotopes vs isomers (difference, usefulness to society, and examples).
- Intermolecular vs intramolecular forces with examples.
- Acids, bases, buffers, and neutralization reactions (p20-22).
- Redox reactions (p66-67).
- Functional groups in biomolecules (recognize them, and comment on their general significance).
- Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis for all macromolecules.
- Classifying monosaccharides (eg trioses, hexoses, aldoses).
- Types of carbohydrates, their linkages, and their function.
- Fatty acids (types, examples).
- Lipids (types, structure, function, examples).
- Amino acids (types, examples).
- Proteins (types, structural arrangements, and examples).
- Protein folding (associations/interactions between amino acids).
- Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, nucleotide components, linkages).
- Indicators used to identify macromolecules (Benedict's, Lugol's/iodine, Sudan IV, Biuret).
- Cell membrane (fluid mosaic model, components & their function, transport, permeability factors).
- Enzymes (induced-fit model p70, factors, regulation; competitive, non-competitive, allosteric p73).
- Enzymes in society (3 specific examples p 76).
- Stages of cellular respiration (reactants, products, site, types of reactions, diagram recognition and labeling, p114).
- Regulation of cellular respiration (4 points, p113).
- Lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation (reactants, products, occurrence, p119).
- Lipid catabolism (beta-oxidation, gluconeogenesis, p118).
- Chlorophyll (types, structure, p139).
- Molecular mechanism of stomata opening and closing (p143).
- Diagram labeling of mitochondria and chloroplast (p144).
- Light dependent and light independent reactions (reactants, products, site, types of reactions, diagram recognition and labeling).
- Chromatography (use, and Rf calculation, and interpretation, p163).
- C3, C4, and CAMplant photosynthesis (occurence, intermediate reactants/products, energy requirements, p168)
- Discovery of DNA (Hammerling's experiment, Hershey & Chase's experiment, p206-209)
- DNA structure (nucleotides, base pairing, p210-214)
- The Central Dogma & the Genetic Code (p237-240)
- DNA replication (nature, enzymes, p219-221)
- DNA transcription (stages, enzymes, post-transcriptional modifications, p242-244)
- DNA translation (tRNA, sequence of events, post-translational modifications, p250-253)
- Mutations (types, examples, consequences, p259-263)
- Gene regulation (lac, trp operons, similarities and differences, p255-257)
- Biotechnology techniques (gel electrophoresis, plasmids, restriction endonucleases, Sanger dideoxy sequencing, PCR, RFLP, p278-302)
- Biotechnological Applications (in medicine, agriculture, forensics, p305-309)
- Homeostasis (definition, rationale, example such as thermoregulation)
- Urine production (filtration, reabsorption, secretion, p351)
- Kidney structure (diagram, nephron)
- Homeostatic role of kidney (ADH, Aldosterone, pH balance, p353)
- Diseases of the kidney (D. mellitus vs D. insipidus, Bright’s disease, p357)
- Technologies used for patients with chronic renal failure (hemodialysis, CAPD, p358)
- Endocrinology; hormonal mode and action (origin, function, target tissue, p376-377)
- Stress hormones (for long, and short term stress, p382)
- Reproductive hormones (p394, p398)
- Nervous system (divisions, p412)
- Motor vs sensory neuron (p413)
- Arc reflex (p416)
- Action potential (p420)
- Synaptic transmission (p423)
- Spinal cord, brain, eye, ear (structure, function, diagram labeling, p427-430, p439, p445)
- Technologies used in medical imaging/neuroimaging (PET, fMRI, CT, p433)
- Population density calculations
- Dispersion patterns
- Mark-recapture analysis
- Technological tracking (methods/ethics)
- Survivorship patterns
- Population curves/graphs (geometric, exponential, logistic growth curves, and equations)
- Density-dependent, and density-independent factors
- Intra-specific competition and examples
- Ecological niche (fundamental vs realized)
- Inter-specific competition (interference, and exploitative)
- Symbiosis (parasitism, mutualisms, and commensalism)
- Human population pyramids and growth (p706)
- Human population projections (p711)
- Energy pyramids, trophic levels, energy transfer (eg 10%) (p718)
- Food production, salinization, air pollution, greenhouse effect
- Effects of global warming (p730)
- Bioremediation, and limiting wastes
- Ecological effects by human activity (p741)
Extra help is available to students. Extra help can be arranged with Mr. Melegos at a mutually agreeable time. Students are strongly encouraged to take advantage of the extra help available, and to clarify any misconceptions about the course content early in the semester.